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Office Management System

Office management refers to the process of planning, organizing, guiding, communicating, directing, coordinating and controlling the activities of a group of people who are working to achieve business objectives efficiently and economically.

Office management is not only necessary to business organization but also essential to non-business organization. In modern internet society also, there is a need of direction to the individual efforts towards common purpose or objective. The direction is given from a place i.e. office.

The process can be treated as office management. A business is carried on by businessman with the help of group of persons. This group of persons has different interest, talent and motto. So, it is the function of office management to organize, guide and control the activities of such group of persons to achieve business objectives.

Definition of Office Management:

Office management can been defined as the art of guiding, directing coordinating and controlling the salaried people of an organization in order to achieve specified objective within a time schedule.

Elements of Office Management

Elements of office management are termed as pillars of a building. If pillar is strong, certainly, the building is also strong. Hence, efficient functioning of office management is based on the elements of office management. Following are the essential elements of office management.

1. Personnel

Office personnel are actually performing the office work. Generally, the selection and placement of office personnel is carried on by the office managerin small organization. In large organization, staffing is carried on by the human resource management department.

In both the case, the office work is to be performed by allocating the work to each individual according to their efficiency, guide the personnel to do the work with the help of means available in an office within a specified time and control the activities of office personnel. The office manager has to do all these activities.

2. Means

Means refers to tools used to perform the office work. Means include pen, pencil, eraser, paper, ink, office forms, typewriter, computer, printer, calculator and the like. Adequate tools have been supplied in an office and put them to the most efficient and economical use for achieving objectives.

3. Environment

The nature of business determines the environment of an office. The various office works have to be carried on under a particular condition or environment. A working environment is created and maintained for the smooth performance of office work. It is the duty and responsibility of an office manager to bring suitable environment by adopting various procedures and practice.

4. Purpose

The office personnel must be aware of the purpose for which a particular work is carried on and the impact of such work on others’ performance. The office manager teaches the purpose to office personal. If not so, the performance of office work does not bring the most efficient and economical use of office resources and achieve the objectives.

Office Management Function

1. Planning:

Planning is the first and foremost function of office management. It is best described as the first step towards other functions of the office.

It is a well-defined course of future action

Fayol had pointed out:

“The plan of action at one and the same time, the result envisaged the line of action to be followed, the stages to go through, and the method to use. It is a kind of future picture wherein proximate events are outlined with some distinctiveness while remote events appear progressively less distinct. Planning is a mental process based on available means of facts and future possibilities”.

Objectives of Planning:

Planning is done to:

1. Offset the changes and uncertainty

2. To gain on economical operations, and

3. To facilitate control.

In the case of office management these objectives of planning are to be co-ordinated with reference to the objectives of business enterprises as set forth by its manager.

Benefits of Planning:

Planning has certain benefits which are enumerated:

1. Planning gives a direction to activities in the office and thus everything becomes purposeful.

2. Planning focuses alteration on objectives.

3. Planning helps to offset uncertainties and changes.

4. Planning facilitates control in the office.

5. Planning also takes care of the growth of business operations. Thus the office is not found wanting when it grows.

6. Planning helps in economical operations in an office as the office personnel know about the target and goals, and about how to move in that direction.

7. Planning facilitates a complete control in the office. The second element of the office is organising.

It refers to the creation of a structure of duties and responsibilities to achieve the objectives of an enterprise. Urvick describes organisation as “determining what activities are necessary for any purpose or plan and arranging them in groups which may be assigned to the individuals. It is concerned with activity-authority relationship. The office is to be organised and the duties and functions are to be defined to determine authority relationship so that the office functions smoothly.”

Office Management Function # 2. Staffing:

It is a function of management, more so it is an executive function of selection, recruitment, compensation, promotion, training and retirement of subordinate managers. Office management also has this process of staffing because the office has to be manned and managed in similar fashion.

Office Management Function # 3. Directing:

Direction is defined and described as the functioning of command. “The successful direction of sub-ordinates results in knowledgeable well-trained people who work efficiently toward the objectives of the enterprises. Direction can be described as the process of guiding and supervising the subordinates. The idea of guiding and supervising is to give a specific direction to the various activities in the office with a view to its proper functioning.”

Office Management Function # 4. Communication:

It is explained as the interchanges of thoughts or information to bring about a mutual understanding and confidence or a good human relation. Effective communication is in line where a thing is understood in the same sense in which it has been communicated.

To establish a good communication it is essential to follow these three principles:

(a) The principles of clarity

(b) The principles of integrity

(c) The principles of strategic use of informal organisation.

Office Management Function # 5. Controlling:

Controlling is a function of checking current performance against pre-determined standards contained in the plans, with a view to ensuring adequate progress and satisfactory performance—physical or financial. Controlling is basis to the office management.

Performance of the office staff has to be measured and corrective steps are to be taken to make sure that the aims of the office via-a-vis that of the enterprises are attained.

Controlling should have these principles:

1. The principle of economy

2. The principle of flexibility.

3. The principle of objectivity.

4. The principle of vision.

5. The principle of need and nature of the office.

Office Management Function # 6. Co-Ordination:

Co-ordination is a process of balancing and keeping the team together by ensuring a suitable allocation of working activities to the various members, and seeing to it that these are performed with due harmony amongst the members themselves.

In order to have an effective co-ordination in the office, it is necessary that co-­ordination must have the following prerequisites:

(a) The goal of the sub-ordinate department must be designed to contribute to the enterprise.

(b) The objectives of the enterprise must be known to each and every member of the group.

(c) Individuals should understand properly how their job contributes to the goal of the enterprise.

Principles of co-ordination:

The principles of co-ordination are enumerated:

(a) Principles of Direct Contact:

Co-ordination must be achieved through direct contact amongst the parties concerned. This would avoid red-tapeism and ensure promptness.

(b) Principles of Continuity:

Co-ordination has to be a continuous process because various conditions keep on interchanging and ever-changing.

(c) Principles of Early Beginning:

It is necessary to achieve coordination with early stages of planning and policy­making.

(d) Principles of Reciprocal Relationship:

All the factors like sales, production, management, finance in a situation must be reciprocally related.

Office Management Function # 7. Motivation:

One of the most complex and a difficult process of a form of management is the process of motivation.

Motivation is of two types:

(i) self-motivation and

(ii) external motivation.

Motivation means including a subordinate to work with zeal and zest with gusto and cooperate for achieving the objectives of the organisation. The motivation system should satisfy the edge needs of the group besides being flexible, competitive, productive and comprehensive.

If a motivational system has these characteristics it shall achieve the following in the office:

(a) Helps for setting examples for sub-ordinates

(b) Keep the moral high

(c) Helps in disciplines

(d) Provides growth in stature and responsibilities

(e) Provides financial opportunities to the executives.